The Development of Instructional Model by Thinking-based Learning to Enhance English Reading Comprehension Abilities and Analytical Thinking Skills of Upper Secondary School Students.


  • Kanokporn Wongpairin Silpakorn University, Thailand
  • Ubonwan Songsern Silpakorn University, Thailand


Instructional Model, Thinking- Based Learning, Reading Comprehension Abilities, Analytical Thinking Skills


This research is being conducted based on the following objectives:
1) to develop and find the quality of an instructional model by thinking-based learning to enhance English reading comprehension abilities and analytical thinking skills of upper secondary school students, and 2) to study the effectiveness of an instructional model by thinking-based learning. The sample group used in this study comprised 42 Mathayom 5 students, majoring in Chinese, and was conducted during the 1st Semester of the 2021 academic year, at Srinakharinwirot Prasarnmit University Demonstration School (Secondary Division). The research instruments consisted of an instructional model by thinking-based learning, the English reading comprehension learning management plan user guide, the student’s analytical thinking skills assessment form, and a questionnaire to seek students’ opinions on learning activities. The data were analyzed statistically through the determination of the mean, standard deviation, dependent t-test, and content analysis. The results of the study revealed the following; (1) The instructional model by thinking-based learning to enhance the ability to read English for comprehension and analytical thinking skills of upper secondary school students, is named “AUAE”, and consists of 4 main components: 1) Principles, 2) Objectives, 3) Learning activities, which consist of 4 steps: Step 1: A: Activating, Step 2: U: Understanding, comprising 3 sub-steps: 2.1 Pre-reading, 2.2 While-reading, and 2.3 Post-reading; Step 3: A: Analyzing, and Step 4: E: Evaluating. Quality assessment was conducted and was found to be at the appropriate level (X= 4.35, S.D. = 0.58). (2) The model’s efficacy revealed that 2.1) after studying, the student’s ability to read English for comprehension was significantly higher prior to their studies at a level of .05. 2.2) Students who studied according to the instructional model by thinking-based learning developed higher analytical thinking skills. 2.3) After studying, the students’ opinions on the thinking-based learning management activities were found to be at a high level of agreement.


Amornchiwin, Banchong. Thinking Teacher: I Want to Teach My Students To Think. Nonthaburi: Amarin Book Center, 2017.

Brien, Learning English Online: How the interest is changing language. Accessed December 14, 2012.

Costa, Arthur L. Developing Minds: A Resource Book for Teaching Thinking. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2001.

First, Education. English Proficiency Education Index-2019, A Ranking of 100 Countries and Regions by English Skills. Accessed April 10, 2022.

Fischer, Stephen D. Infusing Critical and Creative Thinking Into Secondary Science: A Lesson Design Handbook. Pacific Grove. CA: Teacher’s College Press, 1999.

Kamhi-Stein, Lía D. “Reading in Two Languages: How Attitudes Toward Home Language and Beliefs About Reading Affect the Behavior of Underprepared L2 College Readers.” TESOL Quarterly 37 (2003): 35-71.

Khamanee, Tisna. The Science of Teaching: Knowledge for Organizing Effective Learning Processes. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press, 2017.

Maldonado, Adriana. Thinking Based Learning- Richmond Solution Podcast. Accessed November 30, 2021.

Ministry of Education. Basic Core Curriculum. Bangkok: Agricultural Cooperative Association Printing House, 2008.

Murray, Maria S. Language Comprehension Ability: One of Two Essential Components of Reading Comprehension. Accessed November 27, 2016.

Nasirahmadi, Arman. “The Relationship between Iranian Language Learners’ Critical Thinking Ability and their Reading Comprehension Achievement.” International Journal of Research Studies in Language Learning 3 (2014): 15-27.

Paul, Richard and Linda Elder. Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life. (New Jersey: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2022), 112.

Phradhammapitaka. Buddhadhamma. Bangkok: Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya Printing Press, 2003.

Saiduang, Pikul. “The Development of Analytical Thinking Skills from Reading English-language Academic Articles Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University Students, Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences.” Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University 7 (2016): 215-226.

Sinlarat, Paitoon et al. Science of Thinking. Bangkok: Dhurakij Pundit University, 2015.

Soto, Christian et al. “Reading Comprehension and Metacognition: The importance of Inferential Skills.” Cogent Education 6 (2019): 31-42.

Sutika, Manoon Pricha Inthasomphan, and Songkran Phromwong. “The Development of Teaching and Learning Activities of Teachers Through the Use of Thinking skills at Baan Dong Community School, Saithong Rat Uthit Community School, Ban Mae Sap Community School, Samoeng District, Chiang Mai Province.” Far Eastern University Academic Journal 12 (2018): 191-207.

Swartz, Thinking-based Learning: Activating Students’ Potential. America: Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc, 2008.

________. Thinking-based Learning: Promoting Quality Student Achievement in the 21st Century. America: Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc, 2010.

Torgerson, Carole et al., “Phonics: Reading Policy and the Evidence of Influencetiveness from a Systematic ‘Tertiary’ Review.” Research Papers in Education 34 (2019): 208- 238.

Watthanasuk, Sininart. The Development of English Reading Instructional Model by Integrating High-Level Thinking to Promote English Reading Comprehension and Analytical Thinking Skills of 2nd Year English Language Students. Nakhonpathom: Program in Curriculum and Teaching, Silpakorn University, 2015.

Zare, Mohsen and Reza Biria. “Contributory Role of Critical Thinking in Enhancing Reading Comprehension Ability of Iranian ESP Students.” International Journal of Research in English Education 3 (2018): 21-28.

Zimmerman, Susan. 7 Keys to Comprehension: How to Help Your Kids Read and Get It. New York: Three River Press, 2003.




How to Cite

Wongpairin, K. ., & Songsern, U. . (2022). The Development of Instructional Model by Thinking-based Learning to Enhance English Reading Comprehension Abilities and Analytical Thinking Skills of Upper Secondary School Students. Journal of International Buddhist Studies, 13(1), 87–103. Retrieved from




Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.